Saturday, January 29, 2011

Apa yang tiada dalam sejarah Melayu

Malay history: What’s missing from the textbooks
Written by John Doe   
Wednesday, 19 January 2011 18:07

Brunei has always been known to be one of the earliest Muslim Kingdoms in Southeast Asia. They pride themselves in this fact. All their neighbors pride themselves in this too, and of course, since it is fact, it is irrefutable. Right?
Good. Let’s quickly look at some FACTS then:
It is taught in school textbooks that Pateh Berbai, the brother of Awang Semaun and Awang Alak Betatar, discovered Brunei. Awang Alak Betatar subsequently became Brunei’s first Sultan and was known as Sultan Muhammad Shah. Awang Semaun and Awang Alak Betatar were the famous heroes in Brunei during that time.
Sultan Muhammad Shah was the first Sultan of Brunei. He ruled Brunei from 1363 to 1402. He was the first Muslim ruler of Brunei as a result of his conversion to Islam in 1363 for his marriage to a Johorean-Temasik princess. Prior to conversion to Islam, he was known as Awang Alak Betatar.
He sent a mission to China in 1371 by which his name is recorded in Ming historical record as Mo-ha-mo-sha. Sultan Muhammad Shah died in 1402. Sultan Muhammad Shah was the first Sultan of Brunei. He ruled Brunei from 1363 to 1402. He married the daughter of Iskander, a Johorean-Temasik princess introduced by Bal-Paki, her brother-in-law to be.
So far so good... Oh Really?
Read the above again very carefully !! Sultan Muhammad Shah married a Johorean-Temasik princess in 1363. Now, for all those products of Biro Tata Negara (BTN) out there, what year was Malacca formed? 1403. So, there was a Johor king already in 1363? Are you going to argue with Ketuanan Brunei on this? (By the way, he’s more Melayu than YOU!) Also for those who insist that Penang be handed over to Kedah, read the following again and again …
The Johor ruler was under the Thais. The entire Peninsular belonged to the Thais! The ‘king’ of Singapore (Temasik), whom Parameswara of the Malaccan Sultanate murdered in cold blood was in fact the brother-in-Law of the ‘King’ of Pattani, who was under Ayodthaya rule. For those who do not know, Ayodthaya is in Thailand. And that, my friend was already well established before 1363.
Next, Kota Gelanggi was also another Thai City, (yet to be publicized). And why not? Because it is a Thai Buddhist kingdom. Yes, it’s along the Johor River. All I’m allowed to say at this point is that Kota Gelanggi is REALLY along the Johor River. Expose Kota Gelanggi, and you will find its 30ft Buddha statues and its many Buddhist Temples, in all it's glory.
So, for Penang to go back to Kedah, ALL of the peninsula needs to go back to the Thais. Sarawak needs to go back to Brunei, Brunei needs to go back to Majapahit, Sabah needs to go back to the Philippines, and Parameswara needs to go back to Palembang, leaving the Orang Asli in charge all over again. (I find it ludicrous that the Orang Asli are disqualified as ‘Bumiputera’ although they have been here since 60,000 years ago)
Next, the year 1363 is of great significance. Why? That was the year that the first Sultan of Brunei converted to Islam. And he immediately became the Ruler of Brunei? What was he before that? A fisherman? A carpenter? A farmer? What was Awang Alak Betatar in 1362? And what happened the following year when he became a Sultan? Is becoming a Muslim enough to justify becoming a Sultan? Was he the first person in Brunei to convert to Islam?
Let's scroll back time by 100 years; the year is now 1264. A full hundred years BEFORE Awang Alak Betatar converted to Islam, and declared himself a Sultan. A trip to Bandar Seri Begawan is not complete unless one visits the Muslim graves at Rangas. Chuck your ‘pantang’ out the window if you want to enjoy this first-hand, and in real life. Amongst these tombstones is the one of a Chinese Muslim by the name of Pu Kung Chih-mu. He was buried there in 1264. He was a Muslim, buried in a Muslim grave! This is more than a hundred years earlier, before the ascension of Awang Alak Betatar as the ‘first’ Sultan of Brunei. Not only that, he is not the only Chinese Muslim there. I cross-checked against the Brunei Museum Journal of 1993, and found that this has been so well documented!! In fact, this grave had already been found since 1973. Whole communities of Chinese Muslims had already been living in Kampong Batu well before the 12th Century. It is clearly recorded in the 1973 Brunei Museum Journal, and was visited by professors from Japan and China. Pictures are on page 3, 4, 6, 8 and 12. Some are even in colour.
So, here's another nugget for BTN un-educators. The Chinese brought Islam to this region in 1264. Wait! That's not even correct. It was even earlier, because, this Muslim Chinese died in 1264. He had lived a full life in Brunei before he died. And before anyone even thinks of contesting this, let me draw your attention to yet another well-established fact, and let’s see how early the Chinese arrived.
According to records – as in the ‘Notes on the Malay Archipelago and Malacca Compiled from Chinese Sources’ by WP Groeneveldt in 1880 – a Chinese Islamic trader arrived in Brunei in the 10th century. His name was P’u-lu-shieh. He was both a trader and a diplomat. SQ Fatimi writing in the Sociological Research Institute in Singapore in 1963 under an article entitled ‘Islam Comes to Malaysia’, P'u-lu-shieh name is akin to Abu al-Layth.
The Brunei King at that time was named ‘Hiang-ta’. The arrival of the diplomat-trader from China was greeted with great ceremony. If this is so, Islam actually arrived in Brunei in the year of 977.
If this is the year 977, and the Sultan’s name in the year 977 is Hiang-Ta, then how can Awang Alak Betatar be the ‘first’ Sultan of Brunei in 1363? For those with very bad logic (or timeline problems), the year 977 is 406 years older than 1363. And in the year 977, the Chinese were already sending Muslim ambassadors to Brunei. The real question should be, thus, who exactly was that ‘Hiang Ta’ who ruled Brunei in the year 977? An Iban? A Kadazan or a Chinese?
It gets even better. The MOST interesting thing was that the Brunei king’s delegation to China to return the emperor’s greetings was also headed by another Muslim official by the name of P’u A-li (Abu Ali).
Based on this fact alone, Abu Ali must have held an important position in the Brunei government if he was tasked to be Brunei’s ambassador in those days. This is again, irrefutable proof that there was already a government, with a King, and some members of his royal court were Muslims. Again, this is proof that Islam had already reached Brunei before the year 977. This is 75 years into the beginning of the Soong Dynasty, and only severely retarded people will say that Abu Ali was an Arab because of his name.
And by the way, Malacca was not to have been discovered for another 400 years. Is there a prawn under the stone? You can bet your bottom dollar (because Ringgit is worthless toilet paper) that whenever John Doe writes, there is. 
A number of European historians claimed that Brunei was still not a Muslim nation until the 15th century. However, the Ming Shih, Book 325, a Chinese reference book noted that the King of Brunei in 1370 was Ma-ho-mo-sa. Some say that this should be read as Mahmud Shah. In fact, local Brunei historians prefer to take this to refer to Muhammad Shah, the first Sultan of Brunei.
Robert Nicholl, a former Brunei Museum curator argued in another paper entitled ‘Notes on Some Controversial Issues in Brunei History’ in 1980 that the name Ma-ho-mo-sa could be pronounced as Maha Moksha which means ‘Great Eternity’. ‘Maha Mokhsa’ would make it a Buddhist name. Nicholl goes on to argue that even the Brunei Sultan who died in Nanjing in 1408 was not a Muslim. (History books always detail that the Sultan of Brunei went to China, but few will state that he died there),
Another historian Paul Pelliot said Ma-na-jo-kia-nai-nai was reconstituted as Maharajah Gyana (nai). But the closest title would have been Maharaja Karna. However Brunei historians have insisted that the King was Sultan Abdul Majid Hassan, who would have been the second Sultan of Brunei.
Nicholl further argued that Sultan Muhammad Shah converted to Islam as late as the 16th century and not during the 14th century as is widely known. However according to Brunei historians, Sultan Muhammad Shah converted to Islam in 1363 and that he ruled until 1402. After which time, it was Sultan Abdul Majid Hassan, who died in China who ascended the throne. That was when Sultan Ahmad reigned in Brunei beginning 1406.
And why did I bring up this detail? Simple !! Read the top all over again:

  • Sultan Muhammad Shah married a Johorean-Temasik Princess in 1363.
  • And that Kota Gelanggi and the entire peninsular Malaya belonged to the Thais. And if this is true and correct, then both the Sultan of Brunei and his wife, would have been Buddhists.
  • In fact, the entire peninsular Malaya had been Buddhist and/or Hindu ever since the second century when Lembah Bujang was built. And since this is the year 1363, all of Brunei and Borneo was also under the rule of King Hayam Wuruk, who was King of the Majapahit empire. And what religion did they have? (I’ll give you a hint... they built the Borobudor. And for those who claim that Borobudor is a mosque in disguise, please learn to recognize temple architecture.)

Borrobudor in all its splendour.
Oh, and even more important is this:

“Sultan Abdul Majid Hassan whose proper name is Zein Ul-Abidin, frequented the near distant islands, that He called ‘Solook’ (Sulu) from 1402 to 1424. Marrying the daughter (Parmursuli) of the Sulu Tomaoi (chief) Baginda” – it means he had a Filipino wife.

Also important to note, that since this is 1363, Parameswara had not yet swum across Pirate-Bay to reach Temasik yet. Hence, the need to locate the earlier kingdoms which pre-date ‘His Royal Pendatangness’.
During the reign of Wikramawardhana, the series of Ming armada naval expeditions led by Admiral Hajji Mahmud Shams (aka Zheng He), a Muslim Chinese admiral, arrived in Java for several times, spanning the period from 1405 to 1433. By 1430, Zheng He’s expeditions has established Muslim Chinese and Arab communities in northern ports of Java, and thus Islam began to gain foothold on Java’s northern coast. “Admiral Hajji Mahmud Shams (aka Zheng He) was so frustrated when he first arrived in Java, because he could not find a single halal restaurant there”, so wrote Mah Huan, his scribe, thus deciding to spread Islam to the “barbarians” as Chinese records would write.
Also interesting to note is the following:
“In late Yuan Dynasty, China became chaotic, people who lived along the coastal area of Fujian, under the leadership of Ong Sum Ping’s siblings, escaped to eastern Kalimantan — they landed at the river mouth. When they were exhausted, facing a shipping crisis, someone lost their arms. After that, the Kadazans named it as Sungai Kinabatangan — the place where the Chinese lost their arms.
Ong Sum Ping and his sister, and the Chinese people developed the area of Sungai Kinabatangan, and they increased their influences there. With the increase of his prosperity, the natives named him Raja, or King. The Chinese named him as ‘Chung Ping’ - meaning the General. We can clearly see that Ong Sum Ping controlled Eastern Kalimantan.
This is Ong Sum Ping Rd in Brunei.
(Part 2 will appear tomorrow)

Kenneth Hall, Maritime trade and state development in early Southeast Asia, citing Wang Gungwu, 'The Nanhai trade: a study of the early history of Chinese trade in the South China Sea', JMBRAS 31, 2 (1958): 33,  citing Paul Wheatley, The Golden Khersonese, studies in the historical geography of the Malay peninsula before 1500, Kuala Lumpur, 1961, and other secondary sources;
Yoshiaki Ishizawa, 'Chinese chronicles of C1st-5th century AD Funan', 
Yoshiaki Ishizawa, 'Chinese chronicles of C1st-5th century AD Funan', citing Wan Zhen, Nanzhou yuwuzhi.
Louise Levathes, When China Ruled the seas, citing the Liang Shu (History of the Liang dynasty) and (i) Paul Shao, Asiatic Influence in Precolumbian art, Ames, Iowa State Univ 1976,  and (ii) David H.Kelley, 'Nine lords of the night', Studies in the Archaeology of Mexico and Guatemala, 16, Berkeley, Univ of California Dept of Anthropology, Oct 1972 & 'Calendar animals and deities', Southwestern Journal of Anthropology, 16, Albuqerque, Univ of New Mexico, 1960.
Chisholm, Hugh, ed (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (Eleventh ed.). Cambridge University Press.
Ongkili, James P. "Ancient Chinese Trading Links." East Malaysia and Brunei. Ed. Wendy Hutton. Tuttle Publishing, 2001.
Saunders, Graham. A History of Brunei. London and New York: RoutledgeCurzon, 2002.
Wright, Leigh. "Brunei: An Historical Relic." Journal of the Hong Kong Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. Vol. 17 (1977).
"Background Note: Brunei Darussalam". U.S. State Department. Retrieved 2008-12-16., citing vol.231 of The Great Chinese Encyclopedia, compiled by court historians of the Wang emperors from 502 to 556 AD (other refs give the editor's name as Ma Tuan-Lin);
Prof V.G.Nair, Buddhist mission visits America before Columbus,, citing hearsay of an 1100 page diary in the Chinese imperial archives of which only 75 pages of partial excerpts seen; 
Kenneth L. Feder, Frauds, Myths and Mysteries: Science and Pseudoscience in Archaeology, p113-4, citing Frost, F, 1982, 
The Palos Verdes Chinese anchor mystery, Archaeology, Jan/Feb 23-27, 
quoted regarding irrelevance of these anchors.
J.V.G.Mills, introduction, to Ma Huan, Ying-yai Sheng Lan; John Carswell, Blue & White, p.87; Louise Levathes, When China ruled the seas; Ma Huan, Ying-yai Sheng Lan. Inscription in Galle

Comments (25)
  • Parameswara Syah  - Look at the word by it's true meaning.
    Good day, folks.
    Please, I would remind you to look at the Malaysian history on it's core. When the Malays claim that they are the people of the land, I'm very sure that their claim is right.
    The Malays are not just in Malaysia only. We have to get rid of the Malay definition in the Federal Constitution in order to study the history without any bias at all. The Malays are living in Malaysia, Indonesia, Brunei, Singapore, Southern Thailand and other regions of the South East Asia for a very long time. According to the historians and archeologists of UKM, the Malays in South East Asia or to be exact, Malaysian Peninsula can be dated to about 40 000 years ago.
    Why the Orang Laut received Parameswara nicely even though he was migrating from Palembang? Because he was a Malay. The Srivijaya Empire was the Malay Empire.
    "...his name is Jayaviravarman.He is an emerald from sky,ascending the throne of The Kings of Mala.His name full of prosperity,from the blessed bloodline of the emperor of the sea,the great court of Srivijaya..."
    (notes for Inscription of Prasat Trapan Run,Cambodia)
    Kota Gelanggi belongs to the Original Siamese which means the Malays and the Mon people. There is no such thing as the City belongs to the Thais. The Thais are in fact the youngest people that migrated from the north aka Indochina. All of the historians knows this very well. Even the Siamese scriptures and history notes doesn't tell us that they have the hegemony power all over the Malaysian Peninsula. It's because they don't have the power to fight against the Srivijaya Empire. To conquer the Malaysian Peninsula means they have to defeat the Srivijaya Empire... which belongs to the Malays. In that era, there is no such thing as Malaysia and Indonesia. The Malays on both modern nations were free to go anywhere within the Srivijaya Empire. Ayuthaya was established in 1363. They could rarely go until Pattani, which was only conquered by the Siamese soldiers in 1771. They never went deep until Johore because the Malays have the most powerful maritime Empire in South East Asian at that time. Just name it... the Srivijaya Empire, the Malay Malacca Sultanate, the Johore sultanate who helped established the Malay Moro/Sulu Sultanate, the Malay Pattani sultanate which was depicted in the Queen of Langkasuka film.
    Ma-Ha-Mo-Sa stated by Robert Nicholls could be Maha Moksya. Most Malay rulers before the coming of Islam, did embraced Hinduism and Buddhism. In fact, the Srivijaya Empire itself was the centre of education in Sanskrit, Hinduism and Buddhism theology as stated by I-Ching, the Chinese traveler who learned the religion with the Malay Rishi (Mahaguru). Again, don't just stand on the provision in the Federal Constitution when you're talking about the Malays. Lots of the Malay rulers in the ancient era bear the name of Seri Maharaja, Maha Moksya, Mahawangsa, Seriwangsa and the big guys in the keraton and istana bear the title of Seri Bupati, gusti Adipati, Senapati and others. Most of the titles and names are originated from the Sanskrit and the Malay language itself. So there's nothing to be debated about.
    I-ching wrote in his journal,
    "...tiba dan menginap selama 6 bulan.Mempelajari tatabahasa Sanskrit di sini.Sang raja memberikan daku bantuan dan menghantar daku ke negeri yang bernama Moloyu...."
    What is Moloyu? The historians concluded that Moloyu is actually the Malays. Moloyu = Malayu = Melayu = Malays.
    Brunei sultanate never talked about giving back Sarawak to them because they know the bloodlines of the powerful kingdom still runs in the blood of most of the sultans in Malaysia today. Brunei itself was under the hegemony of the Srivijaya Empire at one time. And who has the bloodline of the Srivijaya kings nowadays? He is the Sultan of Perak. Srivijaya Empire = Malay malacca sultanate = johor, Perak and Pahang sultanate = Perak sultanate nowadays, due to the last Srivijaya-Palembang blood sultan being killed or died.
    And, the Malays won't be so greedy to ask for other Malay's belongings. Sarawak is a part of Malaysia. So does Sabah, de facto and de jure. Sulu sultanates are no more. And Brunei is satisfied with his nation, although it's a bit smaller than malaysia. This is not another big problem to be debated about. The Philippines have no right over Sabah, since the Sulu sultanate are no more. They killed their own Sultanate and now they have to pay the big price for that.
    Islam have been brought early to Malaysia by the chinese? The Malays don't even care about the statements. In fact, the Malays are very pleased since they have gotten Islam early, either by the Arabs, the Indians or the Chinese. Most of the chinese muslims even adapt the Malays customs and traditions in their life... they even feel proud of it. Another useless point to be debated about, I'm so sorry.
    And let me correct one major mistakes in your writings. the Borobudur temple was made by the Srivijaya Empire. Not the Madjapahit Empire. All historians know this very well.
    In summary, the Malays have been living in the Malayan peninsula, Sabah, brunei and sarawak for ages, assimilating and cooperating with the natives to build a lot of big empires. So, there is no point about debating whether the Malays are the indigenous race of malaysia or not. They live here for a long time since before Langkasuka (Pattani), Kataha (Kedah tua), Seri Gelanggi, Sri-Dharmaraja (tambralingga), Srivijaya, and even the Malay Malacca sultanate. In fact, the Malays are the main engineer in building those empires, regardless of what today's definition tells us about them. the malaysian Malay, the Indonesian malay, the brunei malays or others. Nations and modern borders can be counted in studying ancient history since there are no such thing as Indonesia, Brunei or Malaysia in that era. All were united under one word which is in malay and was established by the Malays themselves. The Nusantara.
    Lastly, the design of Masjid Tengkera in Melaka is not based on the chinese Pagoda. It was based on the Champa-Malay design in Segenting Kra (in Malay - Sekangkang Kera). Just look at Masjid Agung Demak, designed by wali Songo who was connected to the history of Champa-Kelantan and Masjid kampung Laut in Kelantan. All of them bears the same design and shapes.
    About 'Kunlun', I-Ching stated in his journal about the appearance of the 'Kunlun' people. Tanned-skin, not wearing any footwear, curly hair and wearing sarong. The qoutation of Sui Dinasty also stated the same.
    "...the people of Linyi (Champa) possessed dark skin and curly hair, and that after first Sui Emperor Yangdi conquered Southern Chen Dynasty in AD 589, Linyi sent in tributes. Linyi stopped tributes till Sui armies, led by General Liu Fang, attacked them in AD 604. (Sui Emperor, in addition to attacking Linyi, had invaded Ryukyu.) According to "History of Sui Dynasty", further to the southwest of Linyi (Champa) would be a statelet called Zhenla (Chang-la or Chenla), a vassal of Funan. Zhenla (Chang-la) male population were recorded to be small in size but dark in skin, but some females were said to have lighter skin. Chang-la people all had curly hair. To the west of Zhenla (Chang-la) would be a statelet called Zhu-jiang, and to the south Che-qu. Numerous statelets existed further, with rulers carrying Indian names. It is no strange to see this phenomenon when we examined the history of southeast Asia as a whole to find that Indian influence had spread across the whole area much before the Chinese poked their nose in the same area,.."
    They are nobody but the Malays. The Malays bear the same appearances as stated in both journals and quotations. So, we can't just say the Malays are also 'Bangsa Pendatang' because the malays are indeed the indigenous race of the land along with the natives. Both of them cooperated and worked together to build empires.
    Thank you, and please study history before you start debating about it. Even a bit lack of knowledge will make people especially the historians laugh at you.
    1 - Sejarah Melayu, Tun Seri Lanang
    2 - Sulalatus Salitin
    3 - I-Ching journals
    4 - history of sui dinasty
    5 - Prasat Tapan run
    6 - Ancient Srivijaya prasasti and ancient scriptures including La galigo scripture.

    p/s - I'm just a normal man who love history. I'm a neutral one when it comes to politic and stuffs. When people mis-use the history for wrong purposes, I feel offended since it is just wrongful and a disgusting act to do.
  • Elloi  - Pu Kung Chih-mu
    Looking at the photo of the tombstone "Pu Kung Chih-mu", there is 1 more Chinese character on top of "Pu" which was not translated.
    And, for the record, "Chih-mu" means the "tomb of".
    So, "Pu Kung Chih-mu" means the tomb of Pu Kung.
  • anonymouse
    I too don't understand the point of this article. to prove that Islam was brought to Malaysia by the chinese, during Zheng He's (Cheng Ho) voyage? I've read this theory thru the book 1421..
    frankly, i think we're confusing the fact that Malays are muslims, but not all muslims are malays.
    Anyway since this article is writen by a john doe, which is a generic name that people give themselves to remain anonymous. I just wonder what the true intention of this article is...
    anyway if your true intention is to open the public's eye about things, why not do a research and bring forward some examples of the other races contributions to Malaysia, at the very least, that would leave a positive feeling....
  • anonynouse
    Oh,Oh, you have opened a Pandora's Box!!
    Those Islamic nazis in BTN and Malaysian gomen,read UMNO, are gonna hunt you down and destroy all the evidence now....gOD HELP US
  • svm
    Whether you came yesterday, today or tomorrow you are still an immigrant.
    Grow up boy?.
  • OneBorneo  - re:
    Upai Semaring wrote:
    "Awang Alak Betatar subsequently became Brunei’s first Sultan and was known as Sultan Muhammad Shah. Awang Semaun and Awang Alak Betatar were the famous heroes in Brunei during that time".
    Do you really know who are this two person-Awang Semaun and Awang Alak Betatar? I should reveal it here! I totally agree with the writer that they are the most famous heroes in LAWAS (SARAWAK) and Brunei during that time. He name is actually UPAI SEMARING! A famous tribe of the LUN BAWANG and KELABIT. Lun Bawang and Kelabit is actually from the same stock. The real history about this tribe in Brunei Muzeum being 'REMOVED'many years ago.
    the lunbawang, and probably the kelabit too shared alot of cultural similarities with the natives of taiwan. i onces saw a documentary about a tribe in interior china that shared cultural similarities with the bidayuh people like the bronze accessories they wear on their legs and necks and also the colour and texture of their fabrics. all this tracing of historical roots will lead back to one starting point - the tower of babel in the book of Genesis of the bible.
  • bea  - Difficult to follow
    I found this article quite difficult to follow, without a clear aim/thesis, and could have been better structured. For starters, an introduction to the issue being debated for us who are unfamiliar with the subject would not go amiss.
    In addition, perhaps I have missed the point or should accept that the tone of the piece is par for Malaysian writing when it comes to race and religion, but what is the benefit of using phrases like "and only severely retarded people will say"?
  • Sam Paya  - Kota Gekanggi - Johore (Capital of Sriviya Empire)
    Well, Folks!
    Looks like Johore was once the center of the Srivijaya Empire and Malaysians were once Buddhists!
    Kota Gelanggi is an archaeological site reported in 2005 as potentially the first capital of the ancient Malay Empire of Srivijaya ca. 650-900 and one of the oldest pre-Islamic Malay Kingdoms on the Malay Peninsula. The site's existence was announced dramatically as a 'discovery' by the Malaysian Press on 3 February 2005.
    The reported site of this ancient city is in the dense jungles of the southern Malaysian state of Johor Darul Takzim, near a forest reserve currently managed as a water catchment area, the Linggiu Dam, by the Public Utilities Board (PUB) of Singapore. This description locates the site somewhere within a 140 square kilometre are of the forest reserve surrounding Sungai Madek and Sungai Lenggiu.

    But Singapore is sitting on top of it! They have rights to the water supply source there!
    Fantastic! Bloody old Singa! :-)
    Do I have a problem my ancestors were Buddhists or Hindus? Nah! I thank them for what I am now! A rounded Muslim ! :-)
  • anominus
    if parameswara was indonesian and brought along orang laut wit him (according to malaysian history books) and peninsula was filled with orang asli, from which cave did the melatu pop out from? how the heck are they the owner of malaysia?
  • MatSom  - Malay history: What’s missing from the textbooks
    We wish John Doe would state his real name as the article has quite a bibliography accessible only to historians or scholars or students of history.
    What is important is we should try to know ourselves better, then live with it.
    There is some faint suggestions the the early British colonialists mentioned here "could" have been interested in allowing the confusion, and might have even done what scholars dont do.
    The Region, we're in was a theatre of imperialism. There were the Chinese, Portuguese, Dutch and British and all of them were after conquests and for the trade and some to spread religion. As China was a great nation then, before seclusion, the Europeans colonialists might have tried anyway to win - even falsifying history, perhaps.
    Sensible Malaysians would not be perturbed that their ancstors were Hindus, Buddhists, Muslims or Christians and would even pay high respects to those before them.

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